This paper is part of a research project intended to systematically study musical variation. Two complementary principles elaborated by Schoenberg form the theoretical basis of the research: Grundgestalt and developing variation. Grundgestalt can be essentially defined as a basic group of musical elements from which most of the substance of an organically-constructed piece may be deduced. Developing variation techniques (henceforward, DV) correspond to the means employed for producing this derived material and for structuring it. DV provides progressive, organic, and economic growth, consequently being intimately associated to the concepts of coherence and variety, whose balanced interaction is of central importance for musical composition. The main focus of this study addresses correlations between DV and biological/genetic processes. Three original concepts are introduced: Axe of Global Invariance (AGI); Transmitted Heritage (TH) and Residual Variance (RV). AGI represents a group of musical elements which is maintained along transformations of a given musical idea. TH, the very core of this proposal, corresponds to the material that is effectively and progressively modified (through DV). RV is the material that has no further consequences during the process. These elements integrate an original analytical model employed for the exam of organically-constructed music. The final section of the paper presents a practical application of the model in the analysis of eight thematic ideas in the first movement of Brahms’ Violin Sonata Op.78. The results obtained demonstrate the efficacy of the methodology for a systematical and precise analysis of thematic structures built by developing variation processes.
12.E.2Séance - Schumann, Brahms, and Elgar
Desirée Mayr is violinist of the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra, currently doing a Doctorate in Music and with a Masters in Music from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. She also has Bachelors in Violin from the same institution, Licentiate in Performance Violin from the Royal Schools of Music and Bachelors in Mathematics and Physics from King´s College, London. She participates in congresses, as for example the Royal Music Association (2014/2015/2016), Symposium of Research and Graduate Studies in Music (2014/2016), Brazilian Association of Research in Music (2014/2015/2016) and Brazilian Association of Theory and Musical Analysis (2014/2016). Desirée is also a violinist and music teacher, soloist, chamber musician, gives recitals, plays in music festivals, records for films and television.
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Brazildjmayr@yahoo.com
Carlos Almada is PhD in Music and Professor at the School of Music of the University Federal of Rio de Janeiro. His main research interests are centered on Schoenberg's music, Grundgestalt and developing variation theories, Neo-Riemannian analysis, structural studies on popular music and computational-assisted analyzes and composition. He has published several papers in scientific journals and in international conference proceedings. Almada is member of the Brazilian Association of Theory and Music Analysis, leader of the MusMat Research Group and member of the editorial board of Brazilian Journal of Music and Mathematics and Musica Theorica. Composer and arranger, Almada is also author of five books: Arranjo (2001), A Estrutura do Choro (2006), Harmonia Funcional (2009), Contraponto em Música Popular (2013) and Nas Fronteiras da Tonalidade (2016).
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Brazilcalmada@globo.com