While the monumentality of the first movement of Franck’s String Quartet in D (1889) seems at odds with the concise first movement of his Violin Sonata in A Major (1886), both movements show a similar approach to form. Like Liszt’s ground-breaking Piano Sonata in B Minor (1853), both movements by Franck exhibit “double function” forms, a term coined by William S. Newman. Unlike Liszt’s sonata, however, Franck’s movements do not present a multi-movement cycle within a single-movement sonata form. Instead, they present two different types of sonata form simultaneously. The first movement of the String Quartet in D presents a Type 3 sonata, defined by James Hepokoski & Warren Darcy as a standard sonata form with exposition, development, and recapitulation, concurrently with a Type 2 sonata, where the development begins with an off-tonic version of the primary theme, and the sense of recapitulation begins with the secondary theme in the tonic key. The first movement of the Violin Sonata in A Major presents a standard Type 3 sonata concurrently with a Type 1 sonata, or sonata without development. The double function in both movements depends upon the presence of late Romantic traits, such as formal fusion (defined by William Caplin as a single passage of music fulfilling more than one function simultaneously) and a re-examination of sonata-form key schemes. Franck’s use of double function forms added a richness and depth to the classical ideal of sonata form and revitalized the form in the late nineteenth century.
12.I.1Séance - Chopin, Mendelssohn, and Franck
Carissa Reddick serves as the head of the music theory area and the Graduate Coordinator for the School of Music at the University of Northern Colorado. Her articles appear in Music Theory Online, Music Theory Pedagogy Online, and most recently in the Journal of the American Liszt Society. She has presented papers on form in late nineteenth-century music at EuroMAC 8 and at various conferences throughout the United States. She is a former president of the Rocky Mountain Society for Music Theory. She holds a Ph.D. in Music Theory and History from the University of Connecticut and a Master’s of Music in music theory and cello performance from The Hartt School at the University of Hartford.
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